學刊論文
青少年至成年初期親子關係的變化及其影響

DOI:10.6129/CJP.20140831
中華心理學刊 民 104,57 卷,1 期,67-89
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2015, Vol.57, No.1, 67-89


周玉慧(中央研究院民族學研究所)

 

摘要

本研究結合家庭生命階段發展論、社會學習論、個體化理論及角色認同理論等觀點,探討台灣青少年至成年初期的親子關係特色,區辨此階段親子關係的變遷類型,分析影響親子關係變遷類型的因素,並檢視親子關係類型對心理健康的長期影響。資料來源為台灣中央研究院社會學研究所「台灣青少年成長歷程研究計畫」於2000年至2011年十二年間收集的長期追蹤資料,以2000年、2003年、2006年及2011年四個時期均回答的受訪者1,053人為分析樣本。結果主要顯示(一)各時期親子關係均可分為「矛盾型」、「支持型」、「衝突型」及「疏遠型」,此四類型在不同時期的比例有所變動,成年初期的變化明顯。(二)親子關係變遷類型包括「長期矛盾型」、「穩定支持型」、「持續衝突型」及「疏遠轉衝突型」。(三)親子關係變遷類型與成長生命經驗有關,相較於「持續衝突型」受訪者,「穩定支持型」受訪者有較高比例離家或有婚姻經驗。(四)憂鬱隨時期呈線性下降,自尊隨時期既呈線性上升亦呈倒U型曲線變化。親子關係變遷類型影響憂鬱初始值,「持續衝突型」受訪者的憂鬱明顯較其他三類型來得高;自尊發展軌跡則受親子關係變遷類型的調節,「穩定支持型」受訪者的自尊明顯隨成長上揚,且呈現倒U型變化。這些結果證實,親子間互動關係的長期變遷類型影響台灣青少年至成年初期的長期心理健康。

 

關鍵詞:親子關係、心理健康、青少年至成年初期、潛在類別成長分析、多變量階層線性模式 


Longitudinal Effect of Parent-Child Interactions on Psychological Well-Being during the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

Yuh-Huey Jou (Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica)

 

Abstract

This prospective longitudinal study considered theories of family life stage development, social learning, individuation, and role identity to explore the characteristic and the styles and the transition of parent-child interactions from adolescence to young adulthood, and to examine its long-term impact on children’s psychological well-being. Data (n=1,053) were based on a panel study conducted by the Taiwan Youth Project at the year 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2011; that is about 15, 18, 21 and 26 years old. Main results showed that 1. the styles of parent-child relationships could be distinguished as "ambivalence," "support," "conflict," and "distance." The proportions of these four styles were change in each years, the change was salient particularly at young adulthood period. 2. The transitional styles of parent-child relationships could be identified as "long-term ambivalence," "long-term conflict," "long-term support," and "distance to conflict." 3. Compare with those who were "long-term conflict," those who were "long-term support" showed higher percentage of getting married or leaving home experiences. 4. There was a significant linear increase in depressed mood and a significant converse U-curve in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood. Those who were "long-term conflict" reported the highest depressed mood at the intercept, however, those who were the style of "long-term support" reported better self-esteem over time. The results confirmed that youths' longitudinal psychological well-being vary by long-term parent-child interaction patterns.

 

Keywords: latent class transition analysismultivariate hierarchical linear modelparent-child relationshippsychological well-beingtransition from adolescence to young adulthood

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