黃惠玲（高雄醫學大學心理學系） ； 林佑青（高雄醫學大學心理學系）；翁敏嘉（高雄醫學大學心理學系）；王雅琴（高雄醫學大學精神科）
注意力缺陷過動症(attention deficit / hyperactive disorder，簡稱ADHD) 是兒童期最常見的心理異常，主要症狀包括過動(hyperactivity)、衝動(impulsivity)及不集中注意力(inattention)(APA, 1994 ; Barkley, 1998)。本研究之目的為以自然觀察法，建立ADHD兒童在自然情境下的行為特徵。本研究選取10位小學二、三年級的ADHD兒童與9位對照組兒童，對每位兒童每隔四週至六週做一次學校情境觀察與一次家庭情境觀察，每次觀察時間2.5小時，一共觀察了學校情境80次，家庭情境82次。觀察的目標行為包括10 種症狀行為與15種人際行為，觀察時有一位攝影員拍攝錄影帶，還有一位觀察員做現場觀察紀錄，並將錄影帶轉為文字稿。文字稿由卡片謄寫員以事件取樣法做成事件記錄卡，並標註目標行為種類。觀察員與卡片謄寫員都分別進行兩次信度評估（一次是觀察開始或事件記錄卡開始，另一次是期中），一致性系數都在可接受範圍(.78至1.00)。研究結果發現(l)ADHD組的注意歷程與對照組無顯著差異性，(2 )對照組的專注行為顯著多於ADHD組，(3)ADHD組的過動衝動性顯著高於對照組，(4)人際行為方面，兩組無顯著差異。對兩組間有顯著差異性之目標行為做行為功能分析，是進一步的研究方向。
BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT I HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN: A NATURAL OBSERVATION STUDY
HUEI - LIN HUANG（Department of Psychology, Kaohsiong Medical University）；YU - CHING LIN（Department of Psychology, Kaohsiong Medical University）；MING - CHIA WENG（Department of Psychology, Kaohsiong Medical University）；YA - CHING WANG（Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiong Medical University）
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most recent diagnostic label for children with significant problems in attention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate behavioral characteristics of ADHD children in their natural environment. Ten ADHD children and 9 control children in the second and third grade of primary schools, were observed for 2.5 hours at home and 2.5 hours at school every 4 to 6 weeks. There were 80 sessions observed at school and 82 sessions observed at home. Ten syndrome behaviors and 15 interpersonal behaviors were observed during these sessions. A photographer took videotapes, and an observer recorded context during each observation sessions. The videotapes were then transcribed into narrative records. The inter-rater relaibility of observers and coders were 0.78 to 1.00. The results were: (I) Attentional processes were not significantly different between the ADHD group and the control group (p > .01). (2) Attentional behavior of the control group was significantly higher than ADHD group. (3) The hyperactive/impulsive behavior of the ADHD group was significantly higher than that of the control group. (4) Interpersonal behavior was not significantly different between the ADHD group and the control group. Therefore, these results were consistent with the motivational deficit hypothesis and the attentional deficit hypothesis.
Keywords：ADHD, Attention deficit, Natural observation