中華心理學刊 民 91，44 卷，1 期，75-93
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2002, Vol.44, No.1, 75-93
本文以三項研究探討兩性在擇偶時對於外貌、經濟能力、及五大人格特質等條件之重視程度的差異，以及兩性在吸引異性策略及發生性行為的條件等方面的差異，來檢驗演化論之性策略論（Buss & Schmitt, 1993）與親職投資說（Trivers, 1972）的預測。研究發現，兩性最主要的差異是，女性擇偶時傾向於優先考量男性是否具有有利於穩定地提供情感與經濟資源的性格特徵與經濟條件，此一傾向見諸於女性比男性更重視對象未來擁有穩定的工作或賺錢的能力（如學歷），以及比男性更偏好對象具有嚴謹自律性（特別是努力工作、認真負責、可倚賴性等三項特徵）、成熟穩重與積極剛毅的性格特性。女性此種擇偶偏好，顯然有利於其成功地養育後代。另一方面，男性無論是長期擇偶抑或短期擇交，皆比女性更重視對象的年輕貌美，也比女性更會認為多偶的優點可滿足性慾，男性的此種偏好模式顯然也有利於繁衍更多的後代。因此，兩性的擇偶偏好差異可謂符合親職投資說的預測。在吸引異性方式方面，男性認為對女性展現才能、經濟資源及正面性格特徵等方式較為有效，而女性大抵也偏好此種男性，顯示異性間的性擇可能促成同性間的擇偶競爭。本研究的發現雖然與美國相關研究在不少方面是相同的，但我國女性可能受到華人相依文化的影響，而更強烈偏好認真負責、可以倚賴的男性。研究發現對於演化論、性格演化心理學、傳統擇偶觀的意涵，加以討論。
SEX DIFFERENCES IN MATE SELECTION PREFERENCE AND SEXUAL STRATEGY: TESTS FOR EVOLUTIONARY HYPOTHESES
Yao-Chia Chuang（Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Pingtung Teachers College）
According to evolutionary theories of mate selection (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Trivers, 1972), men and women value different characteristics in potential partners and adopt differential sexual strategies. Three studies were conducted to test the theories. In Study 1, 308 undergraduate students rated the relative importance of 40 characteristics in choosing a mate. These characteristics included physical attractiveness, financial prospects, and 25 attributes of the Big Five traits. Respondents also judged the effectiveness of 20 mate attraction tactics. Study 2 tested the stability of the findings of Study 1 using an older sample (N = 256). In addition, they answered several hypothetical questions such as the advantages of polygamy. Study 3 allowed subjects to freely list 10 important characteristics in choosing a mate. Analysis of mate preference shown in a few classical and modern Chinese novels was also conducted. One prominent sex difference was that females emphasized the earning potential of the marriage mate more than did males, whereas males paid more attention to the youth and physical attractiveness of a female mate. With regard to personality traits, it was found that women tended to value conscientiousness, dominance (status striving), emotional/character maturity more than did men. However, women did not reliably value agreeableness more than did men. When encountering a not-yet-well acquainted potential mate men were more likely than women to agree to have sex if the mate is attractive. Men were also more likely than women to agree that 'satisfying sex drive' is one of advantages of polygamy. Overall, these sex differences in mate preferences and sexual strategy were consistent with the prediction of evolutionary theories. Finally, men judged the tactics of displaying good personality traits and resources as more effective in attracting the opposite sex than did women, suggesting that female mate preferences might lead to intermale competition. Analysis of the preference order of Big Five traits revealed that women valued a male mate's conscientiousness (hardworking, responsible, reliable) most, whereas men valued a female mate's agreeableness most. This finding did not seem to hold for Americans. Because men's conscientiousness implied more ability and willingness to provide stable emotional and economic resources to a marriage partner than did their agreeableness, this cultural difference suggested that Taiwanese women might have a stronger preference for a mate who can provide stable emotional and economic resources than did American women. The Chinese culture that emphasizes interpersonal interdependence might make Taiwanese women's mate preference more consistent with the predictions of the parental investment theory. The themes concerning mate preferences revealed in Chinese novels provided further support for the findings from the questionnaire studies. The implications of these findings for the evolutionary theory of mate choice, evolutionary personality theory, and the controversy between cultural and evolutionary explanation were discussed.
Keywords：Evolutionary theory、Parental investment、Mate choic