期刊論文
台灣大學生的美貌刻板印象:受試者及對象性別和個人傳統性現代性對其之影響

中華心理學刊 民83 ,36 卷,2 期, 121-135
Chinese Journal of Psychology 1994, Vol.36, No.2, 121-135


吳正桓(中原大學心理系);吳昌儒(中原大學心理系);林宏茂(中原大學心理系);黃斐功(中原大學心理系);楊惠娟(中原大學心理系)

 

摘要

本研究旨在探討美國社會中普遍存在的美貌刻板印象(即「美就是好」的效果),是否在不同文化背景下的台灣也存在,而且其能涵蓋的人際知覺及評量層面是否也相似?另外,本研究也探討受試者性別、對象性別,以及個人傳統性及現代性的價值觀(楊國樞、余安邦、及葉明華,民80),對美貌刻板印象彰顯程度的可能影響。結果顯示,總共十一個涉及中國人性格特質、人際知覺及生活成就的評量層面上,只有在三個有關個人品德及辦事能力(即「善良誠樸」及「精明幹練」的性格特質和人際知覺中的「道德修養」)的層面上,未獲得典型的美貌刻板印象,而在其他8個層面,均有顯著的美貌效果。這個結果與美國研究的綜合結論相當一致。另外,本研究並未獲得受試者性別及對象性別對美貌刻板印象強弱有交互作用的證據,此結果亦與美國研究的綜合結論相似。至於根據個人傳統性及現代性量表中· 有關集體主義與個體主義,以及性別差異意識可能對美貌效果有所影響的假設,完全未獲支持。綜合上述結果,本研究在討論中,反駁Dion, Pak及Dion(1990)所說的集體主義文化下(如台灣),較不會以個人特徵(即外貌)做爲人際判斷的基礎,故美貌刻板印象較不明顯的講法。


關鍵詞:美貌刻板印象,個人傳统性/現代性,人際知覺,性別


THE PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEREOTYPE OF TAIWANESE STUDENTS : THE EFFECTS OF SEX AND INDIVIDUAL TRADITIONALITY/MODERNITY
ChengHuan Wu (Department of Psychology Chung-Yuan Christian University), ChangRu Wu (Department of Psychology Chung-Yuan Christian University), HungMao Lin (Department of Psychology Chung-Yuan Christian University), and FeeiGong Hwan & HueiChuan Yang (Department of Psychology Chung-Yuan Christian University)

 

Abstract

The present study explores whether the robust phenomenon of physical attractiveness stereotyping found in the American cultural context would exist in a society with different cultural background such as Taiwan, and whether the dimensions of person perception and evaluation that have revealed the impact of physical attractiveness are identical. Besides these, the present study also examines the effects of subjects 'sex, targets' sex, and subjects' standings on the scales of individual traditionality and modernity (Yang, Yu, & Yeh, 1991) on the strength of attractiveness stereotype. The results showed that among 11 measures of various evaluative dimensions of the target persons, only on three measures relevant to social morality and task competence did not obtain the significant effects of physical attractiveness. There were strong "what is beautiful is good" effects on the other measures. This result is consistent with the conclusion derived from the reviews of various American studies. Also, that subjects' sex and targets' sex had no interactive effects on the strength of attractiveness stereotype parallels the American research. Finally, the subjects' individual traditionally and modernity had no effects on the strength of stereotype. Based on these findings, the present study challenges Dion, Pak, and Dion's (1990) sociocultural explanation of attractiveness stereotyping who have argued that people in a collectivist cultural context like Taiwanese would be less prone to stereotyping on the basis of a personal cue such as physical attractiveness than those in an individualist cultural context.


Keywords: physical attractiveness stereotype, individual traditionality /modernity, person perception, sex.

 

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