期刊論文
兒童內外控信念的先決及後果變項

中華心理學刊 民 65,18卷,105-120

Chinese Journal of Psychology 1976, Vol.18, 105-120


楊瑞珠(國立台灣大學);楊國樞(國立台灣大學)

 

摘要

本研究之主要目的是用問卷測量方法測得兒童的內外控信念及兒童心目中父母 的敎養方式,以窺探兒童心目中的父母育兒方式在兒童內外控信念的形成和發展上所扮演的角色,同時研究內外控信念與學業成績,學業成就抱負水準,在班級團體中受人歡迎的程度及不受人歡迎的程度等後果變項之間的關係。從內外控信念的先決變項的研究結果發現:外控者多認爲其父母採取拒絕和忽視的態度對待孩子,對孩子的要求較多,訓練孩子較爲寬鬆,獎懲較缺乏原則,較常運用精神獎勵和物質獎勵的方式鼓算子女。而後果變項的研究結果發現:除了內控組在期望自己月考所得的最低名次和期望老師所給與的最低名次上優於外控組外,內控或外控信念並未在學業成績,受人歡迎的程度,不受人歡迎的程度,和其他有關抱負水準的指標上,造成顯著的差異理象。


ANTECEDENT AND CONSEQUENT CORRELATES OF CHILDREN'S BELIEFS IN INTERNAL-EXTERNAL CONTROL

SHUI-JU YANG (National Taiwan University), and KUO-SHU YANG (National Taiwan University)

 

Abstract

The purpose was to explore the role of child-rearing practices as perceived by children in the development of their beliefs in locus of control, and to study the relationship of these beliefs to scholastic performance, level of aspiration, and popularity. 4th-grade pupils were administered a scale of internal-external control for children and extreme groups were formed on the basis of their scores, each consisting of 40 boys and girls. The groups were compared in terms of variables of perceived child-rearing practices, measured by a parent-child-relations questionnaire, and variables of performance, aspiration, and popularity. The major findings are : (1) Externals, as compared with Internals, perceived their parents as more rejecting, neglecting, casual, and demanding and as using more symbolic-love and direct-object reward, but lacking principles in rewarding and punishing children; (2) Externals tended to have lower scholastic aspirations than Internals and there were no significant differences in performance and popularity between the two groups.

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