中華心理學刊 民 109，62 卷，2 期，129-150
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2020, Vol.62, No.2, 129-150
自正向心理學興起後，「感恩」研究日漸備受重視，目前已累積許多理論概念與實徵證據。後續，「感恩」研究從一般情境擴展應用到特定情境，其中，運動心理學家也加入感恩研究行列。雖然，在追求「更高、更快、更 強」的競技運動場合中，「感恩」因難以立即直接提昇運動員的體能與成績，不免受到質疑與忽視，但隨著近幾年在運動領域累積的研究成果，不只證明一般感恩在特定的運動情境具檢證性，更在對運動員原有的更高、更快、更 強的期待上，嶄新注入「更健康」的面向。本文為了揭示一般感恩在特定的運動情境具有可複製或再檢證性，以及 強調感恩在運動情境的特色與貢獻，共分三部分綜述:第一部分，首先針對一般「感恩」的概念、理論基礎做介紹， 並說明感恩測量工具的建構與發展以及感恩對幸福感的影響，其後，說明感恩的培養或介入效果。緊接著，第二部分帶出運動心理學領域，依序說明運動員感恩研究的萌芽期與發展期所累積的成果貢獻與突破。第三部分，提出有別於一般情境，感恩在運動情境中的突破方向。在以績效為目標的競技環境中，鼓吹讓心理更健康加入運動訓練中 雖然是嚴峻的挑戰，但感恩可以讓運動員在最適心理功能的狀態下展現最佳的競技成果，是個值得繼續致力的研究主題。
Athletes’ Gratitude: Initialization, Development, and Prospects
Lung Hung Chen(Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry Management, National Taiwan Sport University) ; Shih-Chi Hsu(Department of Social Psychology, Shih Hsin University)
The study of “gratitude” has become an increasingly important hot topic in positive psychology field. Mention to the research achievement, various of theoretical concepts and empirical evidences have been accumulated and published. Follow - up “gratitude” research has been applied and extended from the general situation to the specific situation, such as some sports psychologists join the gratitude research. In the initial stages, the “gratitude in sport field” research had been questioned and ignored due to gratitude could not improve the athlete’ energy and performance soon and directly. Fortunately, gratitude has been acknowledged and valued gradually due to it brings athletes’ an additional function “psychologically healthier” beside prime goals “Faster – Higher – Stronger” all athletes pursue. This article aims to re-examine study results from specific sports gratitude on the analogy of general situation gratitude, and emphasize the characteristics and contributions of gratitude in the context of sports. This article is divided into three parts: the first part introduces the theoretical concept, measurement tool of gratitude, and then clarify contemporary theory underpinning the relationship between gratitude and athletes’ well-being. Some intervention that aim to enhance the effects of gratitude on well-being are also reviewed. The second part is about a systematic review of the psychological process and theoretical boundaries of gratitude in sport psychology in particular during two stages of initial germination and development. The third part, finally, we propose a breakthrough about gratitude in sport psychology different from gratitude in general situation. Though Faster – Higher – Stronger is presented as the golden ideal in sport, some scholars (including us) have attempted to introduce concepts from positive psychology such as gratitude because we believe that optimal performance depends on psychological health as well as physical health. In the performance-oriented competitive environment, investigating the benefit of gratitude on athletes’ well-being is not a well-went road, but it is nonetheless a worthy endeavor.
Keywords: gratitude intervention, gratitude measurement, psychological health, sports psychology, well-being