期刊論文
競技運動之心智解密:當代議題與未來趨勢

DOI:10.6129/CJP.202006_62(2).0004
中華心理學刊 民 109,62 卷,2 期,171-194
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2020, Vol.62, No.2, 171-194


王駿濠(國立成功大學體育健康與休閒研究所)

 

摘要

認知與神經科學是當代運動心理學領域的重要思潮,尤其是優秀運動員心智功能的課題也逐漸受到學界的重視。雖然多數研究證實認知功能在競技運動的重要性,然而當前研究成果在運動實際場域的應用仍未普及,其原因可能是缺乏該議題的整體脈絡介紹與實務引導。有鑒於此,本文首先將針對國內外競技運動與認知功能之研究做主題式的系統性文獻評析,藉此瞭解該議題之研究取向、脈絡與發展現況,再從現有的理論假說/模式解釋研究發現背後的可能機轉。經文獻回顧發現,大多數研究皆證實認知功能除了可以反映運動型態、技能水準與不同專項位置的運動員個別差異之外,亦有少數研究發現執行功能與抑制能力等高階認知功能對於競技運動表現具有預測力。儘管這些研究發現很有價值,但由於部分相歧的研究發現以及多數研究皆採用低生態效度的實驗情境與橫斷性研究設計,使得研究成果的實務應用性也相對受限。有鑒於此,本文最後也針這些這議題提出研究的發展趨勢與實務應用之建議。

關鍵詞:競技運動、運動員、認知科學、神經科學

 


Mind in Sports: Contemporary Issues and Future Trends

Chun-Hao Wang(Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies, National Cheng Kung University)

 

Abstract

Cognitive and neuroscience science has been a promising approach in sport psychology. In particular, there has been increased attention given to the role of mind in sports. Although most empirical studies have pointed out the importance of cognitive function supporting sports expertise, the generalizability of current findings to applications in field settings has been limited, which may be due in part to lacking of a comprehensive review and practical guide on this topic. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review to discuss the published literature regarding sports and cognitive neuroscience so as to understand the past and present in this field. This review then discussed the potential mechanisms explaining the existing research findings from the point of view from current hypothesis/models. Despite some inconsistency, the review of most of the previous studies reveals that individual differences in cognitive functioning may be related to sports type, expertise level, and playing position. Further, higher-order cognitive functions such executive functions or inhibition have been demonstrated to predict sporting performance. Despite these promising findings, the discrepancy in findings and the adaption of low ecologically valid experimental condition as well as cross- sectional design may impede the real-world application of research findings. Accordingly, this review also proposed the directions for future research and field applications.

Keywords: sports, athletes, cognitive science, neuroscience

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