期刊論文
轉型領導與家長式領導在運動領導研究的回顧與展望

DOI:10.6129/CJP.202006_62(2).0008
中華心理學刊 民 109,62 卷,2 期,267-298
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2020, Vol.62, No.2, 267-298


高三福(國立清華大學運動科學系);連玉輝(國立臺灣大學體育室);鄭昱宏(國立臺灣大學心理系);鄭伯壎(國立臺灣大學心理系)

 

摘要

轉型領導與家長式領導是近十餘年來運動領導研究新興的二個議題,取代了過去主導運動領導研究潮流的多元領導模式。教練領導的高支配性、目標導向、快速反應及依賴人力的特性,契合轉型領導與家長式領導的領導者權力支配之理論基礎,這意味著這二種領導風格適合用來描述教練領導。有鑒於此,本文目的回顧轉型領導與家長式領導,從近期研究的重要研究結果,剖析這二個議題未來的可能展望與方向。我們從轉型領導與家長式領導分別敘述:運動團隊中的轉型領導與家長式領導、轉型領導與家長式領導發展回顧、運動團隊轉型領導與家長式領導最新研究進展。在最新的研究進展,轉型領導可以區分出影響關係、質性研究、真誠轉型領導測量、以及青少年轉型領導等四個方向。在家長式領導則區分出影響關係、領導類型、領導歷程觀點、以及三元構念的個別效應及組合等四個方向。最後,我們統整轉型領導與家長式領導在運動領導研究的概念異同,並從研究方法、研究概念及選手的培育與發展,對轉型領導與家長式領導在運動團隊的未來研究方向提出建議。在研究方法,可以考量隨機分派的實驗法、教育訓練及行動研究的設計;在研究概念方面,理論層級和分析層次的對應和釐清,是有待解決的議題;在選手的培育和發展方面,以刻意練習的觀點,從幼童期、青少年期、青年期及成年期的教練選手關係,可以進行橫斷面與縱貫面的剖析。

關鍵字:運動心理、團隊領導、領導發展、領導歷程

 


Literature review of transformational leadership and paternalistic leadership in sport: Current status and future directions

San-Fu Kao(Department of Kinesiology, National Tsing Hua University), Yu-Hui Lien(Department of Athletic, National Taiwan University), Yu-Hung Cheng(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University) and Bo-Shiuan Cheng(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)

 

Abstract

Transformational leadership (TL) and paternalistic leadership (PL) have been common in sport contexts for decades. Sports teams have several characteristics that make them suitable for the study of TL and PL. These two types of leadership derive from Max Weber’s two types of domination authority: charismatic domination and traditional domination, respectively. TL and PL styles may be close to coaching leadership practices. This review critically examines empirical and qualitative studies of TL and PL in sport settings. We consider definitions of leadership styles, coaching from the perspective of leadership theory, the origin and development of the leadership theory in sport, and the main findings on this topic. Common topics in studies of TL in sport are its consequences, qualitative case TL, measurement of authentic TL, and youth sport TL. Common topics in studies of PL are its consequences, types of leadership, the leadership process, and combination paternalistic study. We compare the studies of TL and PL in sport leadership and highlight avenues for advancing research on TL and PL in sports. We make the following suggestions for future studies. To improve research and practice, randomized experiments, interventions, and action research are required. At the conceptual level, it is necessary to refine the definitions of TL and PL in sports contexts. To improve practice, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the development of athletes from childhood to maturity are needed.

Keywords: leadership development, leadership process, sport psychology, team leadership

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