期刊論文
DEVIANT VERBALIZATION IN THE RORSCHACH TEST AS INDICES OF PATHOLOGICAL THINKING OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

Acta Psychologica Taiwanica
1983, Vol. 25, No. I, 13-23


YI-SHIU YEN(The Private Tainan Relief Institute Chronic Mental Hospital)

 

Abstract

The origin of the hypothesis in the present study is that Watkins and Stauffacher's Delta Scores show a significant correlation with the degree of pathological disorganization; Their Delta Scores are constituted by 15 types of deviant verbalization which were selected from Rapaport's categorization of deviant verbalization.

In the present study, four groups (Normal, Neurotic, Borderline State and Schizophrenic) of 100 subjects were investigated. Th data indicate that the high degrees of Delta values actually represent pathological thinking of our clinical groups quantitatively.

The results also manifest that among the 15 types of deviant verbalization, "Confabulation" is the most autistic, and most clearly a part of Schizophrenic thinking. Autistic logic, incoherence, absurd verbalization and deterioration color are also qualitatively significant indicators of unrealistic and disorganized thinking of Schizophrenic. The items of Fabulized Combination, Contamination and Confusion are very rare occurrences in the psychotic group, although these verbalizations are considered as reliable indicators of pathological thinking. In the Normal group, there is no occurrence of any verbalization mentioned above.

Furthermore, the Borderline State group makes a little higher score than the Schizophrenic group on the items of Fabulized responses and Relationship verbalization which are characteristics of those clinical groups in which ideation is rich and paranoid preoccupation is indicated.


羅氏測驗中之異常言語爲精神分裂病病態思考之診斷指標

顏一秀(私立臺南仁愛之家慢性精神病養護所)

 

摘要

羅氏測驗中之異常言語,往往反映着精神分裂病之阻塞丶混亂丶妄想、荒廢等之自閉病態思考。臨床心理學家拉柏波特(D. Rapaport) 曾經將出現於羅氏測驗中之異語言常加以分析並分類而發展成二十二種型態之異常言語。

拉柏波特並以「距離」的概念來衡量被測者本身與墨跡卡片中的關係。被測者如果表示對卡片較少的關注或他的反應含有太多矯柔造作的連想,就是卡片距離的增加。如果被測者在觀念上或是情感上將墨跡視爲不可動搖的事實而有它自己眞實的情感或邏輯趨勢,不易被控制或批評,那就是卡片距離的喪失。華特金(J. G. Watkins) 和斯塔法射(J.C. Stauffacher) , 由拉柏波特的異常言語範疇中,選出十五種異常言語而發展成4 分數(Delta Score) 。選擇之要件爲(1)異常言語本身已含有顯著的病態思考(2)在異常羣中出現頻繁的異常言語,華特金和塔法射的4 分數是給與十五種異常言語量的評價。對有較輕的病態思考的異常言語給與0.25 分,有較重的病態思考的異常言語給與0.5 分,有嚴重的病態思考的異常言語給與1.00分,並將被測者所得異常言語分數之和除以整個測驗所得之總反應數取得百分比便是4 分數丶本論文依據之理論爲4 分數可顯示異常者之病態思考。本論文之目的爲(1)取得正常組,精神官態症組,邊緣性精神分裂病組,簇許分裂病組之4 分數之平均值(2)分析十五種異常言語在各組中的分佈情形,並探討各種異常言
語與病態思考之關係。

本研究對每一試驗組各採用100 名之被測者。本研究證實較高之4 分數確實能在量的方面表現精神分裂病之非視實和自閉等病態思考。在質方面,作話異常言語最能表現糖許分裂病之病態思考,次之爲自閉邏輯,支離破滅,衰頹色彩,荒誕等異常言語。混淆,荒誕結合與混亂等異常言語在本研究中出現不多,雖然在拉柏波特的研究中,它們顯示阻塞丶混亂等之病態思考。上述幾種異常言語在本研究裏的正常組裏並無出現。再者邊緣性精許分裂病組比精許分裂病有較高之無稽和關係異常言語出現,這些異常言語顯示一些多慮和胡思亂想之傾向。

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