期刊論文
肯定句與否定句的短期記憶

中華心理學刊
民70, 23 卷,二期, 131-136


劉英茂&張學聆

(國立臺灣大學)

 

摘要

本實驗的係一嘗試包括下列事件: (a)呈現第一詞串(1.5 秒);(b)呈現第二詞串(1.5秒); (c)在不同的保存時距(0 秒丶3 秒丶9 秒丶21 秒)· 受試者從事分心作業(0 秒的情況除外); (d)呈現核對詞串(3 秒),受試者判斷是否與第一詞串一致。一組受試者接受的第一詞串是句子,一組受試者接受的第一詞串不構成句子。兩組受試者接受的第二詞串都是句子。實驗結果發現: (a)構成句子的第一詞串的遺忘曲線·無論在肯定與否定的情況下都非常接近; (b)不構成句子的第一詞串的遺忘過程,則視肯定或否定詞串有所不同; (c)否定的第二詞串的短期記憶都不低於肯定的第二詞串的短期記憶。這些結果都在支持語言抽象的理論模型。

 


SHORT-TERM MEMORY OF AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES

IN-MAO LIU & SHYUE-LING CHANG
(National Taiwan University)

 

Abstract

Each trial of the present experiment consisted of the following events: (a) presentation (1.5 sec) of a first word string that was either affirmative or negative (containing a negative marker); (b) presentation (1.5 sec) of a second word string that was either affirmative or negative; (c) the subject engaged in a destraction task during the retention interval of 0, 3, 9, or 21 sec; (d) the subject judged whether a: third presented word string was the same as the first word string; (e) the subject judged whether a fourth presented word string was the same as the second word string. For one group of subjects, the first word strings were sentences; for another, they were non-sentences. However, for both groups the second word strings were always sentences. It was found that the short-term retention of the first negative sentences was as high as that of the first affirmative sentences, that the short-term retention of the first negative non-sentences was inferior to that of the first affirmative non-sentences, and that short-term re.tention of the second negative sentences was not inferior to that of the second affirmative sentences. These results are in line with a model of linguistic abstraction which assumes that a unitary representation will be constructed for a negative sentence as well as for an affirmative sentence.

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