中華心理學刊 民 109，62 卷，4 期，473-496
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2020, Vol.62, No.4, 473-496
語言能力是兒童學習與識字發展的基礎，早熟的語言發展和閱讀更是資優典型的特質。為能更瞭解資優兒童語言處理與一般兒童的差異，22 位國小資優學生與 18 位一般學生參與本研究。評量工具包括：魏氏兒童個別智力量表第四版、閱讀理解篩選測驗、中文識字測驗、自編音韻知覺測驗（含聲調知覺、聲母知覺、與聲母—韻母知覺）、及自編聽覺反應命名的功能性磁性造影作業（含圖片配對、語詞偵測與嗶音偵測）。研究結果顯示資優組在個別智力量表、閱讀理解測驗及識字測驗得分均顯著優於普通組；在音韻知覺測驗部分，資優組在聲調知覺與聲母知覺測驗得分均顯著優於普通組，唯獨在韻母知覺測驗中，差異未達顯著水準。另外魏氏智力全量表及語文理解指數與各個語文測驗間相關多達到顯著水準，唯獨與聲母—韻母知覺測驗分數相關未達到顯著水準。逐步回歸分析結果顯示語文理解指數對於各個語文測驗的預測能力良好。在大腦活化影像掃描方面，聽覺命名作業施測結果顯示，資優組在處理語詞偵測作業時的大腦活化較普通組學生強，且活化範圍廣泛涉及語文處理相關腦區，同時左右腦並用；普通組學生在不同作業的比較則顯示單側活化較明顯。組別間的差異比較顯示資優組在語詞偵測作業中，後扣帶迴較普通組活化。
Brain Functional Differences in Language Processing between Gifted and Non-Gifted Children
Christine Chifen Tseng (Department of Applied English, National Taichung University of Science and Technology), Keng-Chen Liang (Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University), Huei-Mei Liu (Department of Special Education, National Taiwan Normal University & Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences), Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang (Department of Special Education, National Taiwan Normal University), Chia-Ho Lai (Department of Special Education, National Taiwan Normal University) & Ching-Chih Kuo (Department of Special Education, National Taiwan Normal University)
Children's language ability is the basis for learning and literacy development. One typical trait of gifted children is their early-matured language and thought. To examine the language ability and brain function of gifted children (GT) during the processing of language tasks, 22 gifted students and 18 non-gifted (NG) students were recruited for this study. The research instruments included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC IV)-Chinese Version, Reading Comprehension Screening Test (RCST), Chinese Character Recognition Test (CCRT), Phonological Awareness Task (Tone Awareness test and Onset-Rime Awareness test), and an fMRI task modified from “Auditory Responsive Naming Task” (picture matching task, word detection task, and beep detection task). The results confirmed that the GT group performed significantly better on the intelligent scale, reading comprehension test and Chinese character recognition test; regarding phonological awareness, the GT group outperformed the NG group particularly in tone awareness and onset awareness, but not in the rime awareness test. The Full Scale IQ of WISC IV was significantly correlated with all linguistic performance measures; the score of Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) was also significantly correlated with all linguistic performance measures except for Rime Awareness (RA), and the stepwise analysis indicated that the subtests of VCI predict linguistic performance well. The fMRI results showed that during the word detection task the GT group had higher and more widespread bilateral brain activation involving language processing brain regions while the NG group had more unilateral brain activation during different tasks; more activation was also found in the post cingulate cortex in the GT group than the NG group during the word detection task.
Keywords: Auditory responsive naming task; brain function; giftedness; language processing; phonological awareness