期刊論文
忍一時風平浪靜,退一步海闊天空?華人組織中的人際壓力因應

DOI:10.6129/CJP.202103_63(1).0003

中華心理學刊 民110,63 卷,1 期,41-72

Chinese Journal of Psychology 2021, Vol.63, No.1, 41-72


游立宇(國立臺灣大學心理學系);吳宗祐(國立臺灣大學心理學系);高鳳霞(國立臺北護理健康大學健康事業管理系);駱皓正(國立臺灣大學心理學系)

 

摘要

過去研究發現華人組織中存在與西方組織不同的人際壓力源,對於員工的身心健康具有負面影響,因此工作者如何因應人際壓力源是甚為重要的議題。雖然過去研究已初步探討華人的壓力因應策略,但華人工作者如何因應人際壓力源仍不清楚,有賴進一步釐清。鑑於上述問題,本研究將進行三項系列研究以探討華人組織中人際壓力因應的議題。首先,研究一(N = 184)採取歸納研究取徑,透過關鍵事例法釐清華人組織中的人際壓力因應的內涵;第二,研究二(N = 237)發展衡量工具,並針對新發展的量表進行驗證性因素分析以確認量表的構念效度;最後,研究三(N = 170)根據互動歷程模式的觀點,以多層次模型探討華人人際壓力因應與其前因及後果的關係。研究結果發現,華人工作者在面對人際壓力源時存在與過去研究發現不同之因應方式,本研究提出華人人際壓力因應雙向度模式,以「趨吉/避凶」與「能量投入高/低」向度進行劃分,發現四大類因應方式:促進解決、忍耐維和、消極退避及認知調適。此外,研究結果亦顯示事件層次的相對權力評估、關係品質評估及個人層次的和諧動機對於人際壓力因應方式具有不同預測效果;而不同的人際壓力因應方式,亦對情緒耗竭有不同的影響。綜觀而論,本研究釐清了華人組織中的人際壓力因應構念,有關研究結果之意涵、實務應用、研究限制與未來研究方向,也在最後提出討論。

關鍵詞:人際壓力因應、互動歷程模式、和諧動機、壓力因應


One Moment of Patience, One Hundred Years of Peace? Strategies of Interpersonal Stress Coping in Chinese Organizations

Li-Yeu Yu (Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University), Tsung-Yu Wu (Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University), Feng-Hsia Kao (Department of Health Care Management, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences) & Hao-Cheng Lo (Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)

 

Abstract

Previous research has identified context-specific interpersonal stressors in Chinese organizations that are negatively related to employee health. However, the issue regarding how Chinese workers cope with these interpersonal stressors is still unclear and requires further clarification. Thus, we conducted three studies to clarify this issue. Study 1 adopted an inductive approach (N = 184) to explore the strategies of interpersonal stress coping in Chinese organizations. Study 2 developed a new Chinese interpersonal stress coping survey and used confirmatory factor analysis (N = 237) to examine its construct validity. Study 3 drew on the transactional process model to explore the relationships between the strategies of Chinese interpersonal stress coping and their antecedents and outcomes with a multilevel model (N = 170). The results revealed that Chinese workers used specific strategies to cope with interpersonal stress, including proactive resolution, patience, passive escape, and cognitive adaptation. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that relative power appraisal and relationship quality appraisal at event-level and harmony motives at the individual-level were related to different strategies of coping with interpersonal stress and that different coping strategies affect emotional exhaustion differently. Based on the research findings, we proposed a twodimensional model (i.e., approach/avoidance, high/low energy investment) to explain the mechanisms underlying Chinese individuals’ coping with interpersonal stress. Overall, this study explored the strategies of interpersonal stress coping in Chinese organizations. We discuss the research findings, managerial implications, limitations, and directions for future research in the last section of this paper.

Keywords: stress coping, interpersonal stress coping, transactional process model, harmony motives

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