學刊論文
績效知覺、領導範型契合度與領導效能的關係

中  華  心  理  學  刊
民93,46卷,1期,075-089


徐瑋伶(國立台灣大學心理學研究所);鄭伯壎(國立台灣大學心理學研究所)

 

摘要

本文立基於隱示領導理論與 Lord 的領導知覺模式,探討跟隨者對直屬主管與最高主管的領導知覺。研究採取問卷調查法,一共有一百五十位來自台灣本土高科技產業之員工參與調查。結果發現,跟隨者對團體或組織的主觀績效知覺會影響其所知覺之主管與領導範型的差距,亦即,知覺的單位或組織績效愈高,則主管與領導範型間的差距會愈小。研究也發現,跟隨者將單位績效表現歸因於直屬主管身上的程度,會調節團體績效知覺對主管 - 範型差距的影響效果。此外,研究結果亦顯示,當跟隨者所評定的對象為直屬主管時,績效知覺及主管 - 領導範型之差距會同時影響其所知覺的領導效能;但當跟隨者所評定者為最高主管時,跟隨者所知覺的組織績效會透過最高主管 - 領導範型之差距的中介而影響其所知覺的領導效能。最後,本研究討論了研究結果、研究限制、實務應用,及未來的研究方向。


關鍵詞:隱示領導理論、再認歷程、推論歷程、績效知覺、領導範型


Leadership Prototypes and Performance Perceptions

Wei-Ling Hsu(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University);Bor-Shiuan Cheng(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)

 

Abstract

According to implicit leadership theory (ILT), people have personal theories of leadership in their mind and tend to use their own the- ories to label and judge leaders. Based on ILT and past research, Lord (1985) developed a so- cial information processing model to describe two types of process- the recognized-based processes and the inferential process- to illustrate leadership perceptions. On the basis of implicit leadership theory and Lord's leadership perception model, this study examined followers' perceptions of supervisors and top leaders. A total of 150 employees who were from 8 local hightech companies participated in the survey.
The results indicated that followers' group performance perceptions had a significant effect on supervisory- prototype congruence, and followers' organizational performance perceptions also had a significant effect on top leader- pro- totype congruence. The results as well revealed that degree of ascription was a moderator in the relationship between group performance perception and supervisor-prototype congruence. Moreover, the results confirmed the predica tions that perceiving supervisors was different from perceiving top leaders. When  perceiving supervisors, subordinates were able to observe and interact with their supervisors frequently, and therefore it was easy to compare the leaders with their preexisting leadership prototypes and use the results of the comparisons as well as the group performance information to judge the leaders; therefore, followers' group performance perceptions and supervisor-prototype congruence impacted leadership effectiveness concurrently. On the other hand, followers rarely interacted with their top leaders; when they evaluated their top leaders, they had to seek outside information such as the performance of the companies to form their image and make the assessments, and the result was that organizational performance perception had an indirect effect on leadership effectiveness by the mediation of topleader-prototype congruence. The theoretical and practical implications of these finding are discussed accordingly.

 

Keywords: implicit leadership theory, recognized-based processes, inferential processes, performance perceptions, leadership prototypes
 

 

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