中華心理學刊 民 91，44 卷，1 期，25-46
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2002, Vol.44, No.1, 25-46
Shu Li（Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore ；School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia）；John E. Taplin（Department of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia ；School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia）
The aim of this study was to investigate the Disjunction Effect (Shafir & Tversky, 1992; Tversky & Shafir, 1992) explanation and the Equate-to-Differentiate (Li, 1994a) prediction regarding the performance of adult subjects on 7 variants of the Prisoner's Dilemma under conditions (a) where it was known that the other player chose to compete, (b) where it was known that the other player chose to cooperate, and (c) where the subject did not know what the other player would choose. The equate-to-differentiate approach, which takes into account the relative payoffs for each player in the decision-making situation, yet allows for the individual's limited cognitive capacity to process all the relevant information available, thus provides an alternative and seemingly better account of the disjunction effect observed for decision-making on the Prisoner's Dilemma. To test the generality of this explanation for other phenomena where difficulties of thinking with disjunctions have been identified, the present exploration would provide us with a new guidance as to the route further research might take.
Keywords：Prisoner's dilemma, Sure thing principle, Disjunction effect, Equate-to-differentiate approach