中華心理學刊 民 111，64 卷，4 期，413-446
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2022, Vol.64, No.4, 413-446
本論文旨在探究大學生為何、如何中斷學業拖延，以及將中斷拖延的念頭化為實際行動。論文共進行三個研 究，研究一為前導研究，針對 123 位就讀過大學的參與者進行問卷調查。結果顯示，幾乎所有學生都曾有中斷拖延 的經驗。中斷拖延的原因包含「所剩的時間不多」、「覺得自己不能如此頹廢」、「持續拖延會對未來產生不好的 結果」、「重要他人對自身的期待」及「反省過去拖延經驗」。研究二為質性研究，針對 16 位受訪者進行訪談， 探究研究一提及可能中斷拖延的原因，且比較拖延階段與中斷拖延階段之差異。結果顯示:中斷拖延階段，受訪者 有較多的自我覺察，關注自己做事的動機及在意他人對自己的看法;時間觀方面，從現在快樂主義轉為未來時間觀; 思維方面，從固定思維轉為成長思維。此外，受訪者表示抑制分心、先苦後甘及盡力而為等三種想法可幫助他們將 中斷拖延的念頭化為實際行動。研究三以 627 位就讀過大學的參與者進行閱讀短文的類實驗研究。結果顯示，公我 意識、現在快樂主義及固定思維無法中斷拖延，而私我意識、未來時間觀及成長思維能夠中斷拖延。當個人越有私 我意識、未來時間觀及成長思維時，就越可能抑制分心，且產生先苦後甘與盡力而為的想法，進而有實際的行動。
Back on Track: Why and How College Students Terminate Academic Procrastination
Kun-Lin Tsai(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University), Li-Li Huang(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)
This paper investigated why and how college students terminate academic procrastination and materialize the idea of terminating procrastination. Three separate studies were conducted. The first research is a pilot study that adopted the questionnaire survey approach to collect data from 123 participants who have enrolled in college degree programs. Results show that almost all of the respondents have the experience of terminating academic procrastination. The reasons include “There is not much time left,” “I could not be in such a slump,” “Continued procrastination would have led to unfavorable results in the future,” “The expectations of significant others regarding my performance” and “Reflections on past procrastination experiences.” The second research took a qualitative approach. It used the possible reasons for terminating procrastination from the first research to conduct focus interviews with 16 individuals. After comparing the procrastination phase and the termination of procrastination phase, it is demonstrated that: at the termination of the procrastination phase, interviewees showed more self-awareness, including introspection of their motivations to take action and becoming concerned about significant others’ opinion of themselves. In terms of their perspective on time, the interviewees shifted away from present hedonism to future time perspective. With regard to their state of mind, they shifted away from fixed mindset to growth mindset. Also, interviewees indicated that they were able to inhibit distractions, and concepts such as hard work would lead to fruitful ends or to strive as much as one is able could help them transform notions of terminating procrastination into real action. In the third research, a quasi- -experiment was conducted, targeting 627 participants who have enrolled in college degree programs. They were assigned short essay readings. Results show that the sense of the public self-consciousness, present hedonism, and fixed mindset cannot terminate procrastination, but the sense of private self-consciousness, future time perspective, and growth mindset can terminate procrastination. When an individual’s sense of private self-consciousness, future time perspective, and growth mindset increases, the likelihood to inhibit distraction, and concepts such as hard work would lead to fruitful ends or maximum dedication tend to take shape, leading to the likelihood of the individual to take real action.
Keywords: future time perspective, growth mindset, private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, terminate procrastination