中華心理學刊 民 112，65 卷，2 期，81-108
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2023, Vol.65, No.2, 81-108
成人幸福感的構念，主要區分為源自快樂主義的「主觀幸福感」和自我實現的「心理幸福感」。但是，兩項 幸福感成分，是否在跨學齡至青少年期就同時出現?以及幸福感構念精緻化的發展趨勢，是否和性別及兒童成長的 社會生態系統有關呢?本研究目的探究兒童幸福感構念從學齡至青少年期的轉變，並檢視幸福感與兒童生活範疇 和性別的關聯性。本研究分析樣本來自「國際兒童幸福感調查(International Survey of Children’s Well-Being，簡稱 ISCWeB)」第三波中的台灣資料，資料蒐集於 2017 年 9 月至 2018 年 3 月，總計有 1,230 位 8 歲(三年級)、1,337 位 10 歲(五年級)和 1,511 位 12 歲(七年級)兒童，分析變項有主觀幸福感、心理幸福感及生活範疇滿意度，以 及性別與年齡組別等人口變項，資料分析採用探索性因素分析與測量恆等性分析。從探索性因素分析發現 10 歲與 12 歲兒童幸福感的因素結構皆呈兩個因素，一個是正向積極(包括主觀幸福感題項的生活滿意度與正向情感，以 及心理幸福感題項)，另一個是負向消極(負向情感，亦是主觀幸福感的題項之一)。潛在變項的測量恆等性分析 顯示，10 歲與 12 歲兒童的主觀幸福感相似，但 12 歲兒童的心理幸福感比 10 歲兒童低;男孩對生活範疇的滿意度 從 8 歲到 12 歲呈下降趨勢，女孩的範疇滿意度趨勢呈倒 U 形，在 10 歲時的滿意度最佳;兒童幸福感與各類社會 生態範疇(家庭、友誼、師生和社區)滿意度的關聯性皆密切，尤其以家庭關係為最高。最後以生態系統特徵和心 智發展階段特性來解釋此結果，意涵提升兒童心理健康之可能方向。
Developmental Differentiation of Well-Being Structure from Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence: Effects of Age and Gender
Hsin-Hui Lu(Department of Psychology, Chung Shan Medical University; Clinical Psychological Room, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital); Zheng-Ying Wu(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University); Yu-Wen Chen(Department of Social Work, National Taiwan University); Feng-Ming Tsao(Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University)
The structure of well-being in adults comprises two prominent components: subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB). SWB has its roots in hedonism, while PWB has roots in eudaimonia. Does the structure of these two components of well-being differ in school-aged children and young adolescents? Is the trend of well-being structure related to gender and the social ecological systems that are crucial for mental development during childhood? This study aimed to investigate the developmental trends of the structure of well-being in children from school age to adolescence, and to assess the relationship between gender and various domains of children’s life with well-being. Data for the study was collected from 1,230 8-year-olds (third graders), 1,337 10-year-olds (fifth graders), and 1,511 12-year-olds (seventh graders) as part of the third wave of the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being (ISCWeB) between September 2017 and March 2018. The study analyzed SWB, PWB, and life satisfaction in social domains, as well as examined the effects of gender and age. The data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and measurement invariance analysis. The results of EFA for 10- and 12-year-old children showed a two-factor model of well-being structure, with one factor being “positive” (including items from life satisfaction and positive affect of the SWB subscale, and items from the PWB subscale), and the other factor being “negative” (including items from negative affect of the SWB subscale). Measurement invariance analysis showed that the SWB was similar in 10-year-old and 12-year- old children, but the PWB was lower in 12-year-olds compared to 10-year-olds. Life satisfaction in social domains decreased in boys from 8 to 12 years of age, while it followed an inverted U shape in girls, peaking at 10 years old. All the ecological systems (family, friendship, school, and community) were positively related to children’s well-being, with the strongest relationship being between family and well-being. This study not only revealed the developmental paths of social ecological systems and children’s factors (cognition and identity) in relation to children’s well-being, but also provided implications for improving children’s mental health.
Keywords: early adolescence, International Survey of Children’s Well-Being, middle childhood, subject/psychological well- being, social ecological systems