中華心理學刊 民 107，60 卷，2 期，125-149
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2018, Vol.60, No.2, 125-149
於高齡化、少子化社會，延長就業年限是解決勞動力不足的一種方式，目前的中年就業者被迫延長其專業年限因應新政策。本研究以9位中年人士為研究對象，探索其歷經的職涯危機與因應危機的調適策略。以E. H. Erikson（1959, 1994; Erikson, Erikson, & Kivnick, 1994/2000）的心理社會發展理論，與P. B. Baltes（1987, 1997）的選擇、 最適化及補償（selection, optimization, and compensation, SOC）調適策略為理論框架，半結構式訪談大綱為研究工具，深度訪談收集研究資料，現象學取向的資料分析方式，研究發現：職涯發展歷程具有類似心理社會發展階段的現象，職涯危機的現象類似於心理社會發展危機，心理社會發展階段未達青少年期者，職涯危機主題與個人能力較為相關，心理社會發展階段達到青少年期以後者，職涯危機主題與自我和產業的連結較為相關。因應危機採取的行動共有三種：轉換工作、學習行動，以及尋求他人協助，分屬於基於失去後的選擇、最適化與補償策略三種調適策略，每一位在經驗職涯危機時，至少會應用兩種以上的調適行動，唯採用最適化與補償策略才有助於邁入下一個心理社會發展階段。本研究針對Erikson對危機的論述，深入探討Erikson的理論面向，並歸納因應職涯危機主題與調適行動，研究可提供Erikson理論運用於職涯發展之例證，以供職涯發展相關實務與後續研究工作的參考。
Hsiang-Ju Chen (Department of Adult & Continuing Education, National Taiwan Normal University), Chingju Grace Chen (Department of Adult & Continuing Education, National Taiwan Normal University)
As the baby boomers start to step into the retirement and the birth rate has been decreasing, the shortage in the labor force is a significant issue around the world. The postponement of retirement has become one of the strategies to compensate the shortage of the labor force. The midlife employees are facing the challenges to extend their career to cope with this trend. The purpose of the study is to explore the phenomena of careers crisis and the actions taken by the midlife professionals to solve the crisis. Guided by Erikson’s (1959, 1994; Erikson, Erikson, & Kivnick, 1994/2000) psychosocial development theory and P. B. Baltes' (1987, 1997) selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies, this phenomenological research study interviewed nine adults aged between 35-50 to understand their career development when encountered crisis. The research findings show that the participants' career development stages are similar to Erikson's psychosocial developmental stages, and the career crisis is t he turning point to the next psychosocial developmental stage. For those participants who have successfully completed school age psychosocial development stage, their career crisis themes are related to personal abilities. For those participants who have successfully completed adolescence psychosocial development, their career crisis themes are related to the relations between self and the profession. The research findings conclude three actions for adaptation of the career crisis: looking for another job, learning and seeking help from other professionals, which corresponding to the three strategies: loss-based selection, optimization, and compensation, respectively. Each of the participants applied at least two or more actions to cope with the career crisis, but only the actions that are optimization- or compensation-oriented would help to move into the next psychosocial development stage. The study findings support Erikson's crisis hypothesis in the career psychosocial development and found three adaptive actions to optimize or to compensate the participants' crisis-related issues at the work. Implications for the career counselors, adult learning educators, and human resource (HR) division are discussed.