中華心理學刊 民 110，63 卷，3 期，249-264
Chinese Journal of Psychology 2021, Vol.63, No.3, 249-264
當訊息被存放進工作記憶中後，即便該訊息與當下作業無關，當其再次出現時仍將優先攫取注意力。此現象已 透過不同刺激材料及實驗程序反覆驗證。然而，較少研究探究工作記憶中部分表徵的再現是否影響注意力。本研究 探討以部分為基的工作記憶攫取注意力。在四個實驗中採用序列雙作業典範。參與者須記憶四個有色的圓點，並進 行一個運動方向的判斷作業，偵測畫面中移動刺激的方向，最後進行再認作業。實驗操控工作記憶中的部分訊息再 次出現在選擇注意力作業中時與目標物相符與否，若與選擇目標物相符，則為有效情境；若此部分訊息再次出現在 選擇注意力作業中，並與靜止干擾物相符，則為無效情境。記憶訊息在注意力作業中均為無關刺激，因此不需注意 記憶中的訊息即可完成注意力作業。實驗一及實驗二的再認刺激均為四個白色圓點，實驗三的再認刺激為四個白色 六角星形，而實驗四則改為連結四個圓點的白色線條。實驗一與四均採用有色圓形作為注意力作業的材料，實驗二 則由有色的十字形符號作為刺激材料，實驗三則為不同顏色與形狀的組合。結果發現，僅有實驗一與實驗三的完全 相符情境中可以觀察到部分工作記憶為基的注意力攫取。此發現表示測試方式會影響儲存於工作記憶的表徵內涵， 且只有符合此表徵的部分訊息能誘發部分工作記憶為基的注意力攫取。
You must Remember the Whole for the Reappearance of A Part to Capture Your Attention
Chun-Yu Kuo(Department of Adult & Continuing Education, National Taiwan Normal University) (Department of Psychology, National Taiwan Normal University)
When an external stimulus refreshes an internal representation maintained in a person’s working memory, it captures his or her attention. This working memory-based attentional capture has been demonstrated in various contexts using different stimuli. However, few studies have investigated this phenomenon using part of a visual display maintained in working memory to capture attention. In four experiments, I addressed this issue using a dual-task paradigm. The participants remembered the spatial locations of four colored disks for later recognition, judged the direction of a moving stimulus along with a static distractor, and recognized whether a probe display matched the memorized locations. Color was irrelevant to both the memory and attention tasks. In the valid condition, the color of the moving target was identical to the previously displayed color, and in the invalid condition, the color of the static distractor was the same as the previously displayed color. In Experiments 1 and 2, four white disks were used in a recognition task to probe the to-be-remembered locations. In Experiment 3, four white hexagon stars were used in a recognition task to probe the locations. In Experiment 4, a solid line showed the contour of the four locations for the recognition task. Colored disks were used as stimuli in the motion task for Experiments 1 and 4, whereas colored crosses were used in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 combined the design of Experiments 1 and 2 as a within-subject design. The results showed working memory-driven attentional capture only in Experiment 1 and an object-matched condition in Experiment 3, with two colored disks presented in the motion judgment task and four white disks probed for location memory. The contrast in the results across the three experiments suggests that the parts must be an important aspect of the memorized representation for its reappearance to capture a person’s attention. When the judgment required comparison with the memorized representation based on the four disks, the spatial locations of the four disks were crucial for accurate decision making. Thus, the reappearance of one colored disk could capture attention, whereas the appearance of a cross in the same color could not. When the spatial configuration of the four disks was emphasized in the memorized representation (Experiment 4), the reappearance of the same part did not capture attention.
Keywords: attentional capture, memory strategy, working memory